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How to stop stomach problems from sabotaging your race

Gut issues are reasonably common among endurance athletes. More than 60% of athletes report gastrointestinal symptoms in longer, ultra-endurance events. Symptoms like nausea, cramping, bloating, side stitches, and frequent toilet stops can negatively impact an athlete’s performance. Avoid these mistakes to minimise your risk of gut distress sabotaging your race. 

Mistake #1 - Not training the gut

Just like your legs, lungs and heart, your gut is trainable. You can train your stomach to tolerate, absorb and digest food more efficiently while moving. 

To achieve this, it is crucial to practice and get used to consuming the same type, quantity and frequency of food you’re planning to eat on race day. It’s not only about trying an energy gel during a run and assuming that eating five will also work. 

Mistake #2 - Not hydrating well

Your gut needs water to assist with nutrient absorption and digestion. By being severely dehydrated, you’re compromising your performance and ability to tolerate food. So it’s no surprise that gut issues tend to exacerbate during races conducted in hot conditions. 

Ensure you drink fluids regularly, especially when eating energy-dense foods like gels or bars.

Mistake #3 - Using the wrong type of carbohydrate 

There are different types of carbohydrates or sugars, each of which your body absorbs differently—some at a slower rate than others. On average, your gut can absorb 1 g of glucose per minute. This is why many nutrition recommendations suggest staying around 60g of carbohydrates per hour so your consumption matches your absorption rate. However, it’s been shown that combining different types of carbohydrates can increase the absorption rate to up to 1.5 g/min. Using a ratio of 2:1 glucose: fructose. Being aware of this, many sports products are now developed using this ratio to enhance gut absorption but not all of them. 

If you have this ratio out of balance and consume more carbohydrates than your gut can absorb, your stomach will likely suffer. 

Mistake #4 - Consuming sodium in inadequate quantities

Besides supporting electrolyte balance and hydration, sodium plays a role in food absorption. However, too little or too much can be distressful for your gut and cause issues on race day. 

Mistake #5 - Eating the wrong food before the event

Fibre and fat are elements you must keep in check in the lead-up to your main event. They both slow gut transit, and eating them too close to the race can mean that your body will still be processing them while trying to go on with your event. 

If you struggle with food allergies or intolerances or still haven’t figured out what is causing your gut upset, I encourage you to seek professional help. Understanding the cause of these issues and implementing a plan to manage them will make your training and race experience more enjoyable. 

The final remarks

You can reduce the likelihood of stomach problems ruining your race. As an endurance athlete, planning and practising your nutrition benefits your performance and reduces the risk of gut issues interfering with your race. 

Sources

Burke, Louise, Vicki Deakin, and Michelle Minehan. "Exercise-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, gastrointestinal disorders, food intolerance and allergies." Clinical Sports Nutrition. (2021).

Costa, Ricardo JS, et al. "Gut-training: The impact of two weeks repetitive gut-challenge during exercise on gastrointestinal status, glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance.Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 42.5 (2017): 547-557.

Your complete guide to a successful pre-race carbohydrate loading

As an endurance athlete, carbohydrates are your primary fuel. Just as you want to top up your fuel tank before a long trip, you also want to top up your carbohydrate reserves before an important event. You need to increase your fuel reserves by following a successful carbohydrate loading protocol as part of your pre-race fuelling. 

Is carb loading necessary for endurance athletes? 

Following a carb loading protocol for at least 24 hours before an endurance event with a duration of at least 90 minutes is necessary to maximise the glycogen reserves in your body. Besides, carbohydrate loading for endurance athletes increases time to exhaustion by about 20% on average and improves time trial results by about 2 to 3%. 

How to carb load correctly

You need to consider three key elements for a successful carbohydrate loading: Type of food, quantity and duration. 

Type of food

You guessed it, carbohydrates are the focus of a carb-loading protocol. Choosing the correct type of carbohydrates is essential. You need to select food options high in carbohydrates but low in fat and fibre. Relying on donuts or creamy pasta as your main foods during this loading period is unlikely to be helpful. 

It is also essential to choose foods you are familiar with. Now it’s not the time to experiment with new dishes or cuisines. 

Quantity 

You need to consume 8-10 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight per day. This means that a 65kg athlete will need to consume 520 - 650 grams of carbohydrate per day—the equivalent of more than 10 cups of cooked rice, to give you an idea. 

Duration 

The carbohydrate loading needs to occur at least 24 hours before events of a maximum of 90 minutes and up to 48 hours before those longer than 90 minutes. A big pasta dinner the night before your race is helpful but insufficient for topping your tank reserves. 

Example of a carbohydrate loading meal plan 

Below are some examples of foods to include as part of your carb loading. 

Infographic with carbohydrate loading

Hot tips for a successful carb loading for endurance athletes

The final remarks

When done right, carbohydrate loading is an effective strategy to increase fuel reserves and support a successful result on race day for endurance athletes. 

Sources

What are the most effective supplements for triathletes and runners?

For many athletes, it’s hard to think of nutrition without supplements. Unfortunately, the use of supplements across the athletic population is significantly larger than the number of proven effective supplements. That’s why here’s a summary of those supplements with enough evidence of enhancing performance for endurance athletes. 

As an endurance dietitian, I think of supplements as the ‘cherry on top. It doesn’t matter how many cherries you put on your cake, it is half-baked, and some key ingredients are missing, neither the taste nor consistency will be appealing. Relying on supplements to make up for a poor diet is the same. Without the nourishing environment of a solid nutrition and training foundation, most supplements will be useless. 

Sports foods

Products such as sports drinks, energy gels, chews, bars and electrolyte mixes fall within this category. 

The purpose of these products is to supply the athlete with a convenient form to consume a particular nutrient. In many cases, this nutrient is carbohydrates. 

Since endurance athletes rely on carbohydrates as their primary fuel source, these supplements are very relevant. Some key aspects to consider when choosing these products are:

Suggested use: 

Events that benefit the most:

Precautions: 

Caffeine

Caffeine is a well-known stimulant with well-established benefits in sports performance. For endurance, caffeine supplements support alertness and decrease perceived effort. Additionally, caffeine promotes fatty acid oxidation helping the body use fat as an energy source. 

Suggested use:

Events that benefit the most:

Precautions:

Nitrate

Dietary nitrate enhances nitric oxide availability. This, in turn, supports exercise performance by improving muscle economy, mitigating fatigue and positively impacting cardiorespiratory performance. 

Supplementation with nitrate has been associated with improvements of 4-25% in exercise time to exhaustion and 1-3% in time trials with less than 40 min duration. 

Suggested use:

Events that benefit the most:

Precautions: 

Final remarks 

By now, you may be wondering, “is that it?”. “Why does my supplement shop has many more items than you just mentioned?”. 

Unfortunately, the world of nutrition supplements is inundated with products that rarely offer the benefits listed on their labels. Many of these products go to market with little to no evidence of their efficacy, putting the athlete’s wallet and, most importantly, their health at risk. 

Remember, always consult with your health or nutrition professional before using any supplement and only consume products that have been batch tested for banned substances. 

Sources

 

Female representation in sport has increased in the last few decades. For example, 49% of the athletes participating in the 2021 Olympic Games were female compared to only 2% of participants in the 1900 Olympic Games or 13% in 1964. However, even though we've seen this improvement at the elite level, female athletes continue to be misrepresented in many areas of sport, including sports, exercise and nutrition research. 

So far, most sports nutrition research and subsequent nutrition guidelines have been based on studies with primarily male participants. It was not until the last 5 to 10 years that we saw increased interest and demand for research on female athletes. 

Women's hormonal cycles mean that estrogen and progesterone fluctuations affect metabolism and fluid retention differently. Here I summarise the top female-specific nutrition considerations for endurance athletes highlighted across the limited research available. 

Energy

Consuming enough calories needs to be the female athlete's #1 nutrition priority. Not consuming enough energy to meet the body's metabolic and activity demands can disrupt menstruation, decrease performance, cause loss of bone mass and increase the risk for injury and osteoporosis. Unfortunately, previous data evaluating the dietary intake of female athletes reported that most athletes didn't consume enough calories. 

Making specific adjustments based on the menstrual cycle becomes irrelevant without adequate energy intake. 

Carbohydrate

Carbohydrates are considered vital during endurance activities, especially those of moderate to high intensity. Therefore, strategic consumption of carbohydrates around physical activity is beneficial for ensuring their availability. 

Pre-exercise carbohydrate intake

Pre-training carbohydrate intake is more critical during the follicular phase when carbohydrate oxidation increases and glycogen reserves are reduced. 

Female athletes can also benefit from a carbohydrate-loading nutrition protocol ahead of their most important races. This is because the capacity to "load" muscle glycogen is not sex-dependent as long as enough carbohydrate is consumed (8-12 g of carbohydrate per kg of body weight).

Carbohydrate during exercise 

Consumption of carbohydrates during prolonged exercise is beneficial regardless of the menstrual cycle phase. However, female athletes appear to have a lower capacity to oxidise carbohydrates compared to males. With guidelines suggesting an intake of 30 to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour during prolonged endurance activity, it may be beneficial to consider a quantity at the lower end of the bracket and adjust according to tolerance and ability to sustain the effort. 

Post-exercise carbohydrate

It is essential to consume carbohydrates immediately after prolonged exercise to restore the muscle glycogen used during the activity. Post-training carbohydrate ingestion can be more critical during the follicular phase since glycogen storage may be reduced. An intake of 1.2 g of carbohydrate per kg of body weight per hour in the first 1-4 hours after training is recommended. 

Fat 

Overall, females seem to rely more on fat oxidation as a source of energy than men. Additionally, fat oxidation appears to be higher during the luteal phase. Therefore, adequate fat intake (at least 20% of total energy intake) is necessary to meet the demands of sex hormone regulation, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and the increased reliance on fat oxidation. 

Protein

Recent research into active female protein requirements suggests that protein intake should be at least 1.6 g/kg of body weight per day during the follicular phase. This requirement may be higher during the luteal phase due to increased muscle protein breakdown rates. 

Consuming 4 to 5 meals spread throughout the day with a total of 0.3 g of protein per kg body weight is recommended to maximise muscle protein synthesis. 

Consuming protein after training is essential to support muscle protein repair and remodelling. Therefore, female athletes should aim to consume a source of high-quality protein as soon as possible as part of their post-training recovery meal. 

Micronutrients

Deficiencies in iron, vitamin D and calcium are common in female athletes.

Iron

Female athletes at higher risk of iron deficiency include those following vegan or vegetarian diets, those with high amounts of repetitive ground strikes (e.g. runners), and those with heavy menstrual bleeding. 

Calcium and vitamin D

Vitamin D is essential for immunity and injury prevention and works closely with calcium to promote bone health. Calcium is also vital to muscle contraction and relaxation. 

Hydration

During the luteal phase, under the influence of high progesterone levels, body temperature can increase by 0.5–1.0 °C. Despite this increase, current evidence does not suggest an increased risk for heat illness (often secondary to dehydration) in women compared to men.

Female athletes should aim to start the activity in a hydrated state. In the case of hydration during exercise consuming 0.4 to 0.8 L per hour is sufficient for most athletes. However, understanding the athlete's sweat rate makes it easier to plan a more personalised hydration strategy.  

Final remarks

More research exploring the specific effects of women's physiology on nutrition and hydration needs is still necessary to produce robust sports nutrition recommendations for female athletes. Fortunately, recent years have seen more female researchers and athletes advocating and working on this change... watch this space!

References:

There’s an equation that I love referring to when I think of endurance nutrition and performance.

QT x PA = IP

where QT = Quality training sessions, PA = Physiological adaptations and IP = Improved Performance

At its core, the purpose of training is to stimulate physiological adaptations in your body, such as developing muscle mass, increasing pulmonary capacity, improving blood flow, developing resistance, etc. These adaptations allow your body to be more efficient, faster and stronger, which translates into better performance and results.

This means that targeting your endurance nutrition into completing quality training sessions and promoting your body’s training adaptations will bring more benefit to your performance in the long term.

Fuelling quality training sessions

I don’t know about you, but my ideal training session looks something like this: Even before the warm-up, my body feels ready to get going, I’m able to meet the targets for each of the sets, and even though they don’t feel easy, I’m able to stay consistent throughout the session. Then, when I’m done with the cool-down, I’m ready to go home, enjoy a nice shower and get on with my day.

Whereas on the opposite side, my worst training sessions had looked something like this: I felt sluggish during the warm-up, I even needed the first set to get into the pace required, and by the time I was on the second last set, I was already struggling and have dropped the pace significantly, the cool-down feels more like dragging my body to the car and by the time I get home I’m only looking forward to being on the couch.

The main difference between one session and the other is that my body was well-recovered and energised in the first one. Whereas in the second, I didn’t have enough energy, and my body was not fully recovered.

You must ensure your body is well-nourished and energised to get quality training sessions. This is not something that drinking a Red Bull thirty minutes before warm-up will fix.

What you eat before, during and after your training session directly impacts the quality of that training session. Not all sessions have the same objective. Therefore you should not fuel all sessions the same way. Download my free fuelling guide with specific endurance nutrition recommendations for different training sessions. 

Promoting the training adaptations

Above else, your body prioritises survival. This means that the body uses the energy you consume for core functions and uses whatever is left for non-essential activities such as your daily run or your time at work. 

When the energy is insufficient, your body tries to spare as much as possible for essential functions and finds ways to save energy from the non-essential ones. Have you ever felt unable to concentrate at work, sleepy, or unwilling to train at all? These are examples of your body’s attempts at saving energy. 

A well-nourished and energised body is a body that is consistently fuelled throughout the day, receives vital nutrients when they are needed the most and has all essential nutrients available to thrive.

When the energy is sufficient, and all the essential nutrients are present in your diet, your body can target non-essential functions, such as promoting the training adaptations that allow your body to become more efficient, faster and stronger. 

Final remarks

As you can see, what you eat on race day is very important for that day to be successful. However, you are leaving a lot on the table by not looking at your sports nutrition months ahead of your main event. What you do day by day, week by week, will give you the most significant advantage. 

What are the key nutrition considerations for a full-distance triathlon?

There is no doubt that adequate training preparation is required to be successful at completing an Ironman. However, having the right amount and type of fuel is equally essential for this preparation and for the race day to be successful. I’ve seen how poor nutrition decisions have ruined races for many athletes wasting all the time, energy and money they invested as part of this preparation, and I don’t want that to be your case. This is why I have decided to put this Ironman Nutrition Guide together with the key nutrition considerations for your full distance triathlon to be successful.

Nutrition for Ironman Training

Before we jump ahead and talk about what you’ll need on race day, it is essential to talk about how you will fuel the preparation and why this is important.

The purpose of training is to trigger physiological adaptations in your body that eventually will translate into better performance. Many people don’t understand that nutrition during training goes beyond eating enough calories. The nutrients in those calories are also critical for those physiological adaptations to occur. Therefore the purpose of food during this stage is for your training to be as efficient as possible.

These are the key considerations so nutrition can support your training.

Eating enough

Now is not the time to go on a new diet or try to lose weight. Restricting your energy intake while your training volume increases will only result in catastrophe. Poor performance, higher risk of illness or injury and lack of energy are only a few of the consequences of not getting sufficient calories.

Getting all essential nutrients

Carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals are all essential for your body to fulfil its core functions, and they all have a role to play in performance enhancement. This is why beyond looking at calories, it is vital to ensure that your diet is well balanced and varied, so all essential nutrients are present.

Eating at the right time

There are critical moments in your day when nutrition becomes even more important. That is before, during and after training.

Before training

You want to ensure that your body has sufficient energy to commence the activity so your body doesn’t need to go under unnecessary stress as part of completing that training session. Carbohydrates are your friends and you will need them at this stage.

During training

Some level of nutrition will likely be required for activities with a duration longer than 90 minutes. The longer the duration and the higher the intensity, the more you will need. This is also the perfect time to try the foods and products you intend to use during your race to get familiar with them and decide which ones work better for you.

After training

The nutrients you consume after your training go straight to where your body needs them the most to stimulate the post-training recovery and start working on those adaptations. Both carbohydrates and protein are necessary during this stage. It is also important that you remember to rehydrate, especially if you’ve been training in the heat.

Nutrition for Ironman Racing

Now that the training is covered, it’s time to guide your Ironman nutrition on the day of the event. The goal is to keep your body energised without disturbing your gut. Easier said than done. Here’s what you need to consider.

Fuelling up your tank

Before heading on to race day, you must ensure that your fuel reserves are full. The best way to achieve this is by following a carbohydrate-loading protocol. I know that pasta parties are pretty popular to increase carbohydrate intake before a race. However, eating pasta the night before your race will not be sufficient to fuel up your tank.

For the carb-loading to be effective, you will need to increase your carbohydrate intake at least two days before your race and preferably three. The guidelines suggest an intake of 7-10g of carbohydrate per kg of body weight. This means that if you are a 70kg athlete, you will need to consume between 490 and 700 grams of carbohydrate per day. In case you were wondering, the equivalent is at least 30 slices of bread or 8 cups of rice.

Now, before you go and stuff your mouth with rice or bread (please don’t), here are some ways to help you increase your carbohydrate intake without drastically increasing the volume of food you consume.

  1. Split your meals into three main meals and three snacks. In each of these, ensure you have high carbohydrate foods (fruits, rice, pasta, bread, wraps, oats, etc.).
  2. Adding energy-dense options such as sugar, jam, or honey to your meals helps increase your carb intake.
  3. Drinks are pretty helpful as well. These days, you can have a glass of juice or sugar-sweetened tea and some Gatorade/Powerade throughout the day.
  4. Try having 1 to 2 extra servings of carbohydrates per meal (i.e. if you usually eat half a cup of rice, try having a full cup).
  5. Reduce your fat and fibre intake to avoid any stomach upset.

Infographic with carbohydrate loading

Race day morning meal

This is the moment when you finish topping up your fuel reserves. Overnight your body uses glucose from your liver as energy while you’re sleeping, so the purpose of that meal is to replenish those energy losses. Ideally, you want to have a meal with 1 to 4 grams of carbohydrate per kilogram of body weight one to four hours before your race starts. As a rule of thumb, I like matching them. One gram if eating 1 hour before, two if 2, etc.

Here are some options to guide your nutrition choices on the morning of your Ironman. Always make sure you’ve tried this meal before during training.

Race day nutrition

Alright, now that we know what you eat months and days before the event matters, it’s time to talk about what you will eat and drink on race day. During the race, we want your body to stay energised for as long as possible and keep your gut from suffering.

Staying energised

While moving, your body is using both carbohydrates and fats. Carbohydrates are your primary energy source, and your body is very efficient at using them. However, you can run out of them very quickly. Therefore, even after following a carb-loading, you still need to eat carbs during your race.

The guidelines suggest that for ultra-distance races such as the Ironman, the carbohydrate intake must be between 60-90 grams per hour. This can come from various sources such as sports drinks, energy gels, energy bars, chews or homemade food. For many people, relying on a single energy source (e.g. getting all carbohydrate from gels or drink) doesn’t go well, but some athletes prefer this method. I recommend choosing a baseline sports drink, gels and a solid option and rotating through them with most energy coming from the drink and gels.

To decide which mix works best, you need to try these combinations and quantities ahead of the race. The long training sessions are ideal for doing this. This takes me to the next point.

Staying hydrated

Dehydration can seriously affect performance and your body’s ability to handle the heat. However, overhydration is equally important and severe, with some athletes developing exercise-associated hyponatraemia due to poor hydration. This is why being aware of your sweat rate ahead of race day will help you plan an adequate hydration strategy that allows you to consume sufficient fluids to keep your dehydration levels within healthy ranges.

Avoiding gut upset

Gut issues during ultra-endurance events are relatively common. Having the proper nutrition strategy and gut adaptation is critical for minimising the risk of this being your case.

Not all foods are created equal, and for those athletes above the 60g per hour intake, looking at the carbohydrate ratio of the food they are consuming is essential to ensure the gut can handle the absorption.

Hydration also plays a significant role in supporting food absorption. It is not uncommon that the prevalence of gut issues increases in races with high temperatures and high levels of humidity. This is due to dehydration's impact on the gut’s ability to absorb food.

Gut adaptation needs to occur during the training stage. To be successful, you will need to practice your nutrition using the type, quantity and frequency you intend to do on race day.

The final remarks

An Ironman is a big commitment. Therefore, working on your nutrition alongside your training preparation and planning a strategy well ahead of the event is indispensable to achieving a successful race.

Sources:

“Eat like an athlete” is often confused with a diet with an abundance of fruits and vegetables and minimally processed food. However, after close to 10 years of working with athletes of all levels, I can tell you that “eating like an athlete” is nowhere near that. 

Since most of the athletes I deal with are endurance athletes, their energy requirements are often high. Meeting these energy needs relying primarily on fruits and vegetables is nearly impossible. Those who dare to try it are likely to spend most of their day visiting the toilet… yikes! 

Due to their convenience and energy density, energy gels, sports drinks and bars (aka processed foods) are also part of an athlete's regular diet. 

However, due to this belief attached to what “eating like an athlete” should look like, many endurance athletes find themselves not fuelling correctly in their attempt to eat as clean as possible. 

Even recently, in an interview for 220 Triathlon, professional triathlete Lucy Charles-Barclay shared her experience dealing with her nutrition. She mentioned how her need to be as professional as possible in every aspect of her life forced her to restrict her diet and not fuel properly. Lucy shared that she now understands the role nutrition plays and that energy restriction will keep her from becoming the world's best Ironman triathlete. 

In contrast, Michael Phelps’ diet became very popular a few years ago. He regularly ate hamburgers and fried food to meet his 10,000 kcal needs and keep up with his daily 6 hours of training.  

So, what does eating like an athlete actually look like? There is no particular food list you need to follow to ensure you are eating like an athlete. What you need is that your food choices help you achieve the following: 

There is no single food that ticks off each of the points above, and that is not the intention. For example, a high in fibre food won’t be as easy to absorb and digest as a refined grain or sugar. 

An example of a day of an athlete’s diet meeting these requirements is outlined below. 

As you can tell, the majority of the foods are those included in a regular “healthy/balanced diet”, but there is room for energy-dense foods. The meal frequency spreads energy intake throughout the day while including energy at key times near the training sessions. 

In summary

Eating like an athlete does not mean restriction. Before you go on cutting things from your diet, have a look at what could possibly be missing. Focusing on what you need to add rather than remove will bring you far better results.

Racing weight is a term a lot of endurance athletes are familiar with. It is based on the premise that racing at a lower body weight will improve sports performance and achieve faster times. 

Because of this principle, many endurance athletes frequently find themselves restricting their food intake in the hopes of getting leaner to achieve peak performance. 

Thankfully, current sports nutrition evidence demonstrates that food’s true benefit lies in what we need to add and not so much in what needs to be subtracted. 

These are the main reasons why achieving a racing weight shouldn’t be your top priority: 

1. There is no evidence of a real benefit

This one shocked me. For years we’ve been told that leaner and lighter athletes achieve better results than their heavier counterparts. However, no data demonstrate that getting an athlete to drop weight and fat ahead of the competition is beneficial. In other words, Joe at 60kg may perform better than Peter at 65 kilograms, but nothing is demonstrating that asking Peter to aim for a racing weight 5kg lighter will improve his sports performance.

There is, however, plenty of evidence demonstrating the harmful impact energy restriction has on performance and health.

2. Losing weight requires a caloric deficit

This is achieved by either reducing energy intake, increasing energy expenditure or both. However, restricting energy intake can put the athlete at risk of developing energy deficiency, ultimately significantly compromising their performance.

3. Underminishes other nutrition benefits

Someone concerned with looking after their weight is less likely to do carb-loading, include nutrition during long training sessions and prioritise recovery after training. As a consequence, they are missing meaningful opportunities for supporting training adaptations and getting the most out of training. 

4. Leads to frustration

Often, racing weight goals don't consider the athlete’s body composition, body weight fluctuations, and overall individual circumstances, making these goals very unrealistic. 

Additionally, restricting calories does not always translate into weight loss. Your body’s priority is survival. When energy is missing, it conducts adaptations to preserve energy. Therefore, you are constantly tired and cranky, craving high-calorie foods and struggling to perform at the expected level. 

5. Poses a health risk

Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a severe problem. Consequences include impairments of metabolic rate, menstrual function, bone health, immunity, protein synthesis and cardiovascular health. In addition, weight-loss attempts and the desire to be leaner are risk factors for RED-S. 

Health and performance consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S)

Health (left) and performance (right) consequences of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) Source: IOC consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update

What can you do instead?

I’m not saying that weight loss can’t happen. What I’m saying is that it needs to stop being your focus. Fuelling your body right, getting quality training sessions and prioritising your body’s overall recovery and ability to support the training adaptations will bring you better results than keeping a close eye on the scale. 

I love the way Jesse Thomas talks about this after overcoming an eating disorder that put his career and life at risk. “Don’t aim for a number on the scale. Aim for consistently healthy habits (...) If you eat consistently healthy, sleep well, and get your workouts in, your body will adjust to the appropriate weight, and that is your ideal race weight.”

 

References:

Mountjoy, M., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Burke, L., Ackerman, K. E., Blauwet, C., Constantini, N., ... & Budgett, R. (2018). International Olympic Committee (IOC) consensus statement on relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S): 2018 update. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism28(4), 316-331.

Tomiyama, A. J., Ahlstrom, B., & Mann, T. (2013). Long‐term effects of dieting: Is weight loss related to health?. Social and Personality Psychology Compass7(12), 861-877.

Hicks, L. (2020, July 29). For young female athletes, losing weight may not improve performance. Retrieved from https://www.science.org/content/article/young-female-athletes-losing-weight-may-not-improve-performance

Tornberg, Å. B., Melin, A., Koivula, F. M., Johansson, A., Skouby, S., Faber, J., & Sjödin, A. (2017). Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc49(12), 2478-2485.

6 nutrition tips for enjoying the silly season

Christmas is by far my favourite time of the year. I enjoy it so much because I love spending time with family, friends and I relish the atmosphere of happiness and harmony that you can feel everywhere. Unfortunately, for many people, it can become a stressful season where the pressure to "avoid gaining weight at all cost" becomes exacerbated. This is why I have put together my top recommendations for enjoying the holidays without the pressures of diet culture. 

Food is at the top of the things I enjoy the most about Christmas. Much of what was prepared in my house when I was growing up was rarely cooked at another time of the year. Now that I live overseas, I enjoy the food even more, every time I visit Mexico. I have also learned to enjoy the food prepared in Australia and share some of the Mexican cuisine by cooking the family stuffing recipe. Apparently, I have turned it into a tradition over here too.

This is why I promise you none of my tips will result in a look of terror from your nanna when you suggest she makes a sugar-free pudding.

 

1. Enjoy it!

This pandemic has shown us how important it is to value what we have. Take the time to be with your loved ones and enjoy their company by being present in the moment. Stressing about how many calories you're eating or how much weight you think you're going to gain will only distract you from the things that matter like the company of those around you and the hands that prepared the delicious food in front of you.

 

2. Eat during the day

Skipping meals or not eating enough during the day to "save calories" will only make you hungrier at dinner, end up eating more than you need, and enjoy less than you should.

Sometimes this is unintentional. We get so busy chatting, cooking or travelling during the day and we forget to eat. Try to listen to your body and eat if you're hungry, preferably choose foods that you know will make you feel good and that will keep you satisfied for longer.

 

3. Choose what you love best

Filling your plate with vegetables or salad isn't going to stop you from finding room for the casserole or the things you like. It is better to fill your plate with what you love the most from the start and give yourself the time to enjoy it. By the way, if vegetables or salad are on the list of things you enjoy most... go ahead! But this applies to the rest of the food too.

You don't have to try absolutely everything there is, especially if you are already full; remember, there's usually enough for leftovers.

 

4. Be compassionate

What's done is done. Hating yourself for everything you ate and how "bad you behaved" doesn't help at all.

 

5. You don't need to "burn" what you ate

Staying active has countless benefits; however, "burning dinner calories" does not belong on this list. Killing yourself by exercising the next day to compensate for everything you ate is neither necessary nor healthy.

If you're going to exercise, do it because you enjoy it, don't use it as a punishment or as a way to justify everything you're going to eat afterwards.

 

6. Ignore January!

Thinking about January as the month you're going to "behave yourself", start your diet and finally "be good" only causes you to feel guilty during December. It's impossible to enjoy something when it's done with guilt. "I'll be good in January" practically translates into "what I'm doing right now is wrong, but I will fix it later". This prevents you from following everything I just recommended and enjoying the things that matter the most during this season: family, friends, health and all the good stuff.

Thank you for reading! I wish you a merry Christmas and hope you and your loved ones enjoy good health.

The Ironman 70.3 is an endurance event with an approximate duration of 4 to 7 hours. Your body undergoes a constant effort, so physical and mental preparation are vital to achieving a successful result. In addition to proper training, nutrition plays a fundamental role in this physical preparation. Whether this is the first time you will compete at this distance or already have accumulated experience, mastering your nutrition strategy for an Ironman 70.3 will help you achieve the best outcome.

Days before the race… Let the feast begin!

Properly executed carbohydrate loading is essential, and its positive impact on performance during long-distance events such as an Ironman 70.3 is well-proven. However, there are particular guidelines you need to follow to ensure you maximise your fuel stores without compromising your gut comfort.

  1. For an event such as the half ironman, the carb-loading needs to start 36 to 48 hours before the competition. This means that if your race is on Sunday, your carb-loading should start Friday and continue through Saturday.

  2. Carbohydrates should be the priority for your meals. The trick is increasing carbohydrates without significantly increasing fat or fibre since this can cause stomach upset.

  3. An intake of 7 to 10 g of carbohydrate/kg of body weight is recommended. This means that if you’re a 70 kg athlete, you should be having 490-700 g of carbohydrate per day.

  4. Protein and fat intake should remain the same and, if possible, decrease a little bit.

“Thanks for the numbers, Gaby, but I don’t want to count grams for everything I eat”… alright, alright… here are some practical tips:

  1. Split your meals into three main meals and three snacks. In each of these, make sure you’re having high carbohydrate foods (fruits, rice, pasta, bread, wraps, oats, etc.).

  2. Adding energy-dense options such as sugar, jam, or honey to your meals helps increase your carb intake.

  3. Drinks are pretty helpful as well. During these days, you can have a glass of juice or sugar-sweetened tea and have some Gatorade/Powerade throughout the day.

  4. Try having 1 to 2 extra serves of carbohydrates per meal (i.e. if you usually eat half a cup of rice, try having a full cup).

This is an example of what your day would look like

Infographic with carbohydrate loading

Example of a day of carbohydrate loading for an Ironman 70.3

 

Pre-race meal

Well done! You completed your carb-load with success, but this is just the beginning… Today is the day! Breakfast is vital for your nutrition to ensure you start your Ironman 70.3 with your fuel tank full (you’ll need it, trust me).

  1. Eat your breakfast 2 to 4 hours before the race. The advantage of triathlons (I see it as an advantage) is that usually 2 hours before the race starts, you need to be in transition getting all your gear ready, so the chances of being awake 3 hours before your start are relatively high… take advantage of it! I usually suggest that my clients have breakfast as soon as they wake up; that way, you have enough time for processing your breakfast.

  2. Don’t, I repeat, DON’T eat something you’re not used to. Make sure you try your breakfast before with training.

  3. The guidelines suggest having 1 to 4 grams of carbohydrate per kilo of body weight. So if you’re 70 kg, you’ll be having 70-280g 2 to 4 hours before the event.

  4. Avoid fat intake as much as possible and keep your fibre intake low.

During the event… Avoid hitting the wall!

Have you heard this expression before? In Mexico, we sometimes say “se me acabó el Gansito” which translates to something like “I ran out of Twinkies”! And yes, it precisely means that you run out of fuel. You have your fat stores, but the body can’t burn these stores as quickly as it burns carbs, so performance starts decreasing significantly. To avoid this, it is necessary to include carbohydrate consumption during the race, and the recommendation is to have 30-90 g of carbohydrate per hour.

There is an excellent range of products you can have, such as gels, jelly beans, and high carbohydrate bars. If you have the talent and inclination, you can also make your snacks with bread, honey, jam or dried fruit. I usually recommend getting pre-packaged products as I find them easier to carry, but that’s your own choice. As long as you get your carbs in, there’s no big deal. Sports drinks are also beneficial since they help you stay hydrated and carb-ed at the same time.

Here’s a table with high-carbohydrate foods that can help you plan your nutrition for your Ironman 70.3:

Option Serving size Grams of carb
Jam 1 tbsp 10g
Honey 2 tsp 10g
Bread 1 slice 15g
Dried cranberries 20 pieces 15g
Gatorade 240ml 15g
Energy gel 1 25g
Energy chews 1 5g
Sports beans 1 package 25g
Clif bar 1 40g
Honey stinger waffle 1 21g

 

 

After the event… you crossed the finish line, but this is not over yet.

Congratulations! You crossed that finish line. What a tremendous accomplishment after all those hours of effort, not only during the race but during training as well… Well done! But guess what? Your race is not over yet, at least not nutritionally speaking. Recovery is essential! (No, I don’t mean beer.) Even though you executed your carb load, you had a great breakfast, and you topped up your carbs during the race, your body is running on empty, and you must recover those nutrients ASAP.

After such a considerable effort, you often don’t feel that hungry, but this doesn’t mean you shouldn’t eat – it’s the opposite! This is when your body is ready to get those nutrients and send them straight to your muscles so they can recover properly. So take advantage of what is offered to you at the recovery zone, eat that fruit, drink the choc-milk and gobble down a sandwich or an energy bar.

Hydration

Just as you need the right nutrition for an Ironman 70.3, hydration is critical. Losing as little as 2% of your body weight in water can significantly negatively impact your performance, so make sure you drink water before, during, and after your race.

Other general tips for long-distance triathlons

  1. Caffeine intake has been shown to impact athletes’ performances positively. Therefore, having your breakfast with a strong cup of coffee with sugar/honey (carbs!) could be beneficial. Of course, this is without even mentioning the other great benefit of having coffee in the morning.

  2. Don’t try anything new during the race. This is very important. Make sure you try all that I’ve mentioned before during training to know how your body reacts to it.

  3. More is not always better. Yes, 60 grams of carbohydrate can help you perform better, but this doesn’t mean that 120 grams will give you superpowers… don’t do it! Your gut has an absorption tolerance of ~60 grams of glucose per hour, so having more than this increases your chances of having gastrointestinal discomfort.

Do you have any questions? Would you like to share your experience with me? I would love to hear it! gaby@intenseatfit.com

Good luck at your race!

 

References:

  1. Cermak, Naomi M., and Luc JC van Loon. “The use of carbohydrates during exercise as an ergogenic aid.” Sports Medicine 43.11 (2013): 1139-1155.

  2. Higgins, Simon, Chad R. Straight, and Richard D. Lewis. “The Effects of Pre exercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.” International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism 26.3 (2016): 221-239.

  3. Jeukendrup, Asker E. “Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.Journal of sports sciences 29.sup1 (2011): S91-S99.

  4. Rankin, Janet Walberg. “Dietary Carbohydrate as an Ergogenic Aid for Prolonged and Brief Competitions in Sport.IJSNEM 5 (1995).

 

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Len Hartley

Previously during Ironman distance events I had issues with hydration and fuelling resulting in a few subpar performances on the run. After speaking to a few other triathletes as well as my coach I decided to contact Gaby at IntensEATfit to get help in identifying and solving these issues to improve my overall performance. While working with Gaby we uncovered that I wasn’t fueling my training sessions well enough, I wasn’t practicing fueling through training enough to condition my stomach to take onboard the required amount of carbs and through testing that my fluid and salt loss was well above average. 

Gaby was great at explaining how these things impact my performance and it was a surprise to find out exactly how much carbohydrate and fluids it takes to successfully fuel and Ironman training & racing. Gaby instilled the importance in training nutrition, and we worked on my nutrition plan weekly allowing my body to get used to the amount of carbs it was taking on board, optimizing the plan to get the best result. This enabled one of the best training blocks I have completed and set me up for a great race in Cairns where I had a strong run to PB by over 10 mins on a challenging course.

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